Key to the Trees and Shrubs of Black Mtn, Mt Ainslie and Mt Majura based on Vegetative Characters
Laurence G. Adams
GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS & TERMS USED
* = known, or believed, not to be native to the Canberra area.
± = more-or-less (qualitative); approximately (quantitative).
< = less than.
> = greater than, more than.
acicular = needle-shaped.
acuminate = tapering to a slender point, the included angle <40°
acute = tapering to a point, the included angle 4090°
adventitious roots = roots with abnormal origin; e.g. from nodes of stem.
aff. = affinis: having affinity with, but distinct from, the named taxon; usually applied to a taxon believed to be undescribed; (see cf.).
alternate = developed singly around an axis, and at different levels; e.g. leaves on a stem.
angular = possessing angles; e.g. the cross-section of stems of some species.
apex (plural apices) = the top; hence: apical.
appressed = bent from the base so as to more or less lie along the surface.
aristate = bearing a stiff but hardly spiny bristle; e.g. some leaf apices.
aromatic foliage = foliage that is scented, usually as a result of being glandular, resinous or oil-dotted.
axil = the angle formed by a leaf or bract and the stem; hence: axillary.
bipinnate = twice pinnate.
biserrate = serrate (q.v.) but with each tooth itself serrulate.
broad- = prefix to leaf-shape: reduces length:breadth ratio, up to 40% from median value.
cf. = confer: compare with; used in cases of uncertainty of identity of a taxon; (see aff.).
ciliate = with fringe of hairs; e.g. leaf margins of some species.
clustered = general term applied to parts that are contiguous but not integral.
compound leaf = leaf that is divided to the rachis into discrete segments; (see simple leaf; pinna).
cordate = heart-shaped, usually in reference to the base of a leaf blade.
corymb = a raceme (q.v.) in which all flowers ascend to a common level; hence: corymbose.
crenate margin = divided regularly into small rounded lobes or teeth.
deciduous = falling off, usually seasonally; e.g. leaves, bark, etc.
decorticate = deciduous outer bark shed in strips or large flakes, usually seasonally.
dentate = margin divided regularly into obtuse teeth.
digitate = branching in 5 parts from a central axis, like the fingers of the hand.
discolorous = of different colours; e.g. the upper and lower surfaces of leaves in many species.
distal = remote or away from the point of attachment; (see proximal).
dorsal = pertaining to the back; e.g., the underside of a leaf; (see ventral).
elliptic = ellipse-shaped, the widest point equidistant from both ends, the length:breadth ratio 2:13:2.
emarginated = notched at the apex.
entire = margin unbroken by lobes or teeth.
erect = at right-angles to surface or axis.
exserted = projected beyond adjacent parts.
falcate = sickle-shaped, i.e. curved; e.g. leaves in some Eucalyptus and Acacia species.
fasciculate = arranged in bundles.
flaccid = limp.
foliar = of, or pertaining to, leaves.
foliolate = bearing pinnae or leaflets.
glabrescent = becoming glabrous.
glabrous = hairless; e.g. some leaf or stem surfaces.
glandular = bearing glands. Various types may secrete oil, nectar, gum, etc.
glaucous = surfaces bearing a fine, powdery, bluish grey bloom.
herb = plant not producing a woody stem or dry bark; hence: herbaceous.
hispid = covered with short, stiff hairs.
hoary = with a grey, frosty appearance.
included = not projected beyond adjacent parts; e.g. the valves in a capsule of Eucalyptus
incurved = moderately curved upward, i.e. through 180 deg; e.g. leaf margins of some species; (see recurved).
inflorescence = group of flowers borne on a single, branched or unbranched stem.
involute = abruptly rolled upward, i.e. through 180360 deg; e.g. leaf margins of some species (see revolute).
juvenile leaves = first-formed leaves, often different in size, shape and arrangement to the adult leaves.
lamina = the blade of a leaf. lanate woolly.
lanceolate = lance-shaped, i.e. with the widest point in the proximal half, the length:breadth ratio 6:1 or more.
lateral = pertaining to the side, relative to an axis; e.g. branches from main stem.
leaflet = general term applied to any (usually the smallest) foliar unit of a compound leaf; (see pinna, pinnule).
linear = long and narrow, with more or less straight sides, the length:breadth ratio 12:1 or more.
maculate = spotted or blotched; e.g. the variegated smooth bark of some eucalypts.
margin = edge or border; e.g. of any foliar structure.
mucronate = with a mucro, i.e. with a short, stiff point, often an extension of the mid-vein.
narrow- = prefix to leaf-shape: increases length:breadth ratio, up to 30% from median value.
oblanceolate = same shape as lanceolate, but with the widest point in the distal half.
oblong = longer than wide, with more or less straight sides, the length:breadth ratio 2:13:2.
obovate = same shape as ovate, but with the widest point in the distal half.
obtuse = blunt, i.e. tapering to a point, the included angle >90°
opposite = developed in pairs, one of each pair on either side of an axis; e.g. leaves or leaflets.
orbicular = approximately circular in outline.
ovary = structure that develops into the fruit after fertilization.
ovate = egg-shaped, i.e. with widest point in the proximal half, the length:breadth ratio 2:13:2.
palmate = radiating from a central point; e.g. leaflets or leaf veins.
panicle = a compound (multi-branched) inflorescence in which all flowers are stalked; hence: paniculate.
parallel = linear (not necessarily straight) structures equidistant from one another; e.g. leaf veins in some species.
parasitic = the situation of one organism living on, and deriving nutrition from, another live organism.
pedicel = the stalk of a single flower; hence: pedicellate.
peduncle = the stalk of an inflorescence (which may be reduced to a single flower).
penniveined = with veins diverging from the midrib of a leaf, analogous to the plume of a feather.
persistent bark = bark that is retained indefinitely, not seasonally shed.
petiole = stalk of a leaf; hence: petiolate.
phyllode = a flattened leaf petiole, lacking a true lamina but looking like, and functioning as, a leaf.
pinna (pl. pinnae) = the primary subdivision of a pinnately- compound leaf; (may be again divided; see pinnule, leaflet).
pinnate leaf = compound leaf with pinnae arranged in opposite pairs, with or without a single terminal leaflet.
pinnule = the smallest (lowest-rank) foliar unit of a divided pinna (q.v.).
p.p. = pro parte: in part, partly
prickle = spine produced by sub-epidermal tissue of a stem, but lacking vascular tissue.
proximal = towards the point of attachment; (see distal).
puberulent = very finely pubescent.
pubescent = downy: possessing short, soft hairs.
pungent = with a sharp, hard point; (does not refer to odour).
pyramidal = more or less pyramid-shaped, i.e. triangular in outline.
raceme = elongate inflorescence of stalked flowers on a common rachis and opening progressively upwards; hence: racemose.
rachis = the main axis of any organ; e.g. inflorescence or leaf.
radiate = spreading from a more or less common centre.
recurved = moderately curved downward, i.e. through 180°; e.g. leaf margins in some species.
reticulate = forming a network; e.g. leaf veinlets.
revolute = abruptly rolled downward, i.e. through 180360°, e.g. leaf margins in some species; (see involute).
rostrate = beaked, i.e. with a substantial, stiff point.
scabrid = rough to the touch, usually as a result of presence of stiff or tuberculate hairs.
scandent = climbing or trailing.
secund = with parts all directed to one side only; e.g. flowers along the stems in some species.
sericeous = silky-hairy, the hairs appressed.
serrate = saw-toothed: margin divided regularly into small, acute, usually distally-pointing teeth.
serrulate = finely serrate.
sessile = stalkless, i.e. without a petiole or pedicel.
shrub = woody plant <8 m high, with permanent branching from, or close to, the base.
simple leaf = leaf undivided, or variously toothed or lobed but not divided into discrete leaflets; (see compound leaf)
s.l. = sensu lato: in the broad sense; often used in cases of persistent difficulty in defining constituent taxa.
spathulate = spoon-shaped; usually with a more or less rounded apex.
spike = elongate inflorescence of sessile flowers on a common rachis and opening progressively upwards.
spine = any hard, pointed structure; e.g. thorn, prickle, etc.
stellate = star-shaped; e.g., referring to branched hairs.
stigma = receptive surface at the apex of the style for germination of pollen grains.
stipule = small appendage, usually herbaceous or rarely spiny, present in pairs at the base of leaves of some dicotyledonous plants
style = stalk of a stigma, usually borne at apex of ovary.
sub- = (prefix): almost.
subulate = awl-shaped: narrow and tapering to a fine point.
taxon (pl. taxa) = any unit of classification; e.g. genus, species etc.
terete = more or less cylindrical in cross-section; e.g. the stems of many species.
ternate = arranged in threes; e.g. lobes or leaflets in some species.
terrestrial = on, or growing in, the earth.
tesselate bark = bark closely fissured into discrete, more or less rectangular or square segments.
thorn = a reduced, spiny branch.
tomentose = possessing short, matted hairs.
tree = woody plant >8 m high with at least a short trunk lacking permanent branches.
tripinnate = thrice pinnate.
tuberculate = warty; with small, surface nodules or swellings, often associated with glands or the bases of hairs.
umbel = several pedicellate flowers emanating simultaneously from the apex of a peduncle; hence: umbellate.
vascular bundle = primary conducting tissue.
vein = vascular bundle of leaf.
ventral = pertaining to the front; e.g. the upper surface of a leaf; (see dorsal).
villous = possessing long, soft hairs.
viscid = with a coating of any sticky substance.
whorled = several similar structures in opposition around an axis; e.g. the stem leaves of some species.