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Grammitis Sw.

Small erect or pendulous epiphytes, less often subepiphytes or rupestral. Rhizome dictyostelic, erect, ascending to short- or long-creeping, mostly short with crowded fronds, apex mostly denslely covered with scales, the scales basally attached, entire or ciliate, mostly +/- opaque brown. Fronds stipitate or subsessile, the stipes not articulate to the rhizome, lamina pendulous or erect, simple, elongate, spathulate, linear or linear-lanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, mostly entire, thin and translucent to thick and leathery, glabrescent, or with sparse or dense reddish simple, unicellular hairs, veins mostly forked, sometimes twice-forked, free, or rarely anastomosing irregularly without included veinlets. Sori round or slightly enlongate, sometimes an elongate coenosorus, generally in a single row either side of the costa, or scattered, superficial to deeply immersed in the lamina, borne on the basal acroscopic branch of each vein group, occasionally on other branches as well, the vein passing through the generally elongate receptacle or terminating in it, exindusiate, filamentous parphses sometimes present, sporangia on a uniseriate stalk, naked or sometimes setulose, annulus vertical, interrupted of c.18-21 thickened cells. Spores trilete, with chlorophyll.

Sect. Grammitis: lamina with black border (New World?)

Sect. Grammitastrum: lamina lacking black border (Old World?)

Key ex Parris 1983, Blumea 29: 25.

Species in Papuasia

1a. Either stipe hairs with broad bases or lamina hairs on small conical projections 2
Stipe and/or lamina hairs not as above 3
2a. Broad-based hairs always on stipe, lamina hairs never on small conical projections G. scabristipes
Broad based hairs occasionally on stipe, lamina hairs always on small conical projections G. tubercuata
3a. White scales at least on some vein endings on upper surface of lamina 4
No white scales at vein endings on upper surface of lamina 6
4a. Hairs on lamina margin and midvein below mostly tufted, up to 8-nate, much longer than those of the lamina undersurface G. mollipila
Hairs on lamina margin and mid vein below solitary or binate, about as long as those on lamina undersurface, or lamina under surface glabrous 5
5a. Rhizome short- to long-creeping; lamina hairs only on margin; lateral veins invisible in transmitted light G. archboldii
Rhizome erect; laminar hairs on midvein beneath and margin, sometimes upper and lower surface also; lateral veins visible in transmitted light G. ornatissima
6a. Lamina with 2 or more rows of sori on each side of the midvein, sometimes the second row only partly (but more than half) complete 7
Lamina with one row of sori on each side of the midvein, occasionally with fragments (less than half) of a second row 11
7a. Lamina hairs only on margin, or sometimes also on midvein beneath 8
Lamina hairs on margin, midvein beneath and lower surface of lamina (sometimes lost from lower surface, except amongst sori) 9
8a. Stipe hairs (0.3-) 0.8-1.6 (-2)mm; lamina entire G. archboldii
Stipe hairs 0.1-0.3 (-0.6mm); lamina often crenate G. sumatrana
9a. Lamina hairs up to 0.3mm G. torricelliana
Lamina hairs more than 0.6mm 10
10a. Lamina 0.8-1.3 cm wide; lamina hairs 0.7-1.5mm; 1st branch of lateral vein directed towards lamina apex G. subreticulata
Lamina 1.4-2.6 cm wide; lamina hairs 1.5-3.0mm; 1st branch of lateral vein directed towards lamina base G. excelsa
11a. Sori sunken in steep-sided pits which may have a slightly prominent rim (remove sporangia!) 12
Sori on surface of lamina or slightly sunken in shallow open depressions without a slightly prominent rim (remove sporangia!) 23
12a. Lamina less than 3cm; stipe more than twice as long as lamina G. interrupta
Lamina more than 3cm; stipe shorter than or about as long as lamina 13
13a. Longest sori narrowly elliptic in outline, each oblique to midvein 14
Longest sori +/- circular to elliptic or oblong in outline, each parallel to oblique to midvein 15
14a. Lamina hairs less than 0.1 mm or absent G. locellata
Lamina hairs 0.5-0.8mm G. pseudolocellata
15a. Stipe hairs (0.4-) 1.0 mm or longer 16
Stipe glabrous or with hairs 0.1-0.3mm 18
16a. Stipe hairs more than 2.0mm; soral pits with slightly prominent rim G. habbemensis
Stipe hairs up to 2.0mm; soral pits without slightly prominent rim 17
17a. Stipe less than half as long as lamina

G. impressa

Stipe about as long or longer than lamina G. montana
18a. Inner edge of soral pits with scattered hairs (remove sporangia!) G. dictymioides
Inner edge of soral pits glabrous 19
19a. Soral pits irregularly spaced, absent from numerous lateral veins in fertile part of frond; lamina thinly coriaceous G. taeniophylla
Soral pits regularly spaced, on almost every lateral vein in fertile part of frond; lamina markedly coriaceous 20
20a. Stipe glabrous G. pleurogrammoides
Stipe with hairs 0.2-0.3mm 21
21a. Upper surface of lamina with sparse to moderately frequent hairs G. curtipila
Upper surface of lamina glabrous or with occasional hairs 22
22a. A small hydathode occasionally at each vein ending on upper surface of lamina; sori not immediately below lamina apex G. caespitosa
A small hydathode often at each vein ending on upper surface of lamina; sori usually immediately below lamina apex G. loculosa
23a. Rhizome scales ciliate G. demissa
Rhizome scales glabrous or rarely absent 24
24a. Lamina crenate, sometimes only at base 25
Lamina entire 45
25a. Stipe glabrous or with hairs up to 0.3 mm (rarely with an occasional hair up to 0.6mm) 26
Most, if not all, stipe hairs more than 0.3mm 34
26a. Lateral veins visible in transmitted light 27
Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light 30
27a. Stipe glabrous G. reducta
Stipe with hairs 28
28a. Hairs of lamina undersurface medium to dark red-brown G. torricelliana
Hairs of lamina undersurface whitish to very pale brown 29
29a. Stipe more than 1cm G. clavipila
Stipe 1 cm or less G. adspersa
30a. Lamina 1-2 mm wide G. tenuis
Lamina more than 3 mm wide 31
31a. Stipe with moderately to dense hairs 0.1-0.3 (- 0.6)mm; lamina (6-)10-18 (-26) mm wide 32
Stipe glabrous or with an occasional hair c.0.2mm; lamina (3-) 5-7 (-8) mm wide 33
32a. Lamina undersurface glabrous G. sumatrana
Lamina undersurface with hairs G. torricelliana
33a. Stipe much less than 1/3 as long as lamina G. crenulata
Stipe at least 1/2 as long as lamina

G. imberbis

34a. Most fertile laterla veins 2-3-forked 35
Most fertile lateral veins 1-forked (or rarely some unbranched) 38
35a. Lamina hairs occasional, ascending, usually on margin, occasionally also on midvein below G. archboldii
Lamina hairs +/- patent, more frequent, or also on lamina on lamina undersurface, including amongst sori 36
36a. Rhizome erect G. ornatissima
Rhizome short- to long-creeping 37
37a. Lamina hairs 0.5-1.0mm, frequent on all parts G. hispida
Lamina hairs (0.4-) 0.8-2.6 (-4.5)mm, occasional to frequent, usually on upper surface, margin, midvein beneath and amongst sori, sometimes also on lower surface G. knutsfordiana
38a. Upper branch of lateral vein much shorter than lower 39
Upper branch of lateral vein as long as lower branch or a little shorter 40
39a. Lamina more than 25cm G. ornatissima
Lamina less than 20cm G. reiwardtii
40a. Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light, slightly prominent on both surfaces of lamina when dried G. inconstans
Lateral veins visible in transmitted light, not prominent on upper surface of lamina and very occasionally slightly prominent at their base on lower surface of lamina 41
41a. All lamina hairs less than 0.4mm, pale yellow-brown G. silvicola
Some, if not all, lamina hairs more than 0.5mm, pale to dark red-brown, or pale yellowish red-brown 42
42a. Stipe more than 2.5cm; sori at least 2mm; at more than 3000m altitude G. meijer-dressii
Stipe less than 2.5cm; sori less than 2mm; at less than 2500m altitude 43
43a. Each lateral branch ending not marked by a small hydathode on the upper surface of lamina; rhizome scales absent G. coredosora
Each lateral branch ending usually marked by a small hydathode on the upper surface of lamina; rhizome scales present 44
44a. Lamina hairs medium to dark red-brown G. oblanceolata
Lamina hairs pale yellowish red-brown G. ahenobarba
45a. Many adjacent sori fused (examine young frond) G. clemensiae
Sori not fused (or occasionally two adjacent sori fused) 46
46a. All or most lateral veins forked twice or more 47`
All or most lateral veins once-forked 70
47a. Stipe glabrous 48
Stipe with hairs, or if stipe absent, then basal 1 cm of lamina with hairs 50
48a. Lamina glabrous G. fasciata
Lamina with hairs on margin, sometimes also on midvein below 49
49a. Lamina hairs 0.2-0.3 (-0.5)mm, on margin and midvein below; sori in middle 1/4-1/2 of lamina G. mesocarpa
Lamina hairs (0.1-) 0.3-0.6 (-0.8)mm, only on margin; sori in upper 1/6-1/2 of lamina G. padangensis
50a. Lamina hairs only on midvein below and/or margin 51
Lamina hairs on undersurface of lamina including amongst sori, usually on midvein below and margin also, or on upper surface of lamina 56
51a. Cells of hizome scales with several complete and incomplete cross-walls G. dolichosora
Cells of rhizome scales without cross-walls 52
52a. All or most stipe hairs more than 0.8mm 53
All or most stipe hairs 0-.8 mm or less 54
53a. Lamina hairs only on margin G. archboldii
Lamina hairs on margin and midvein below G. knutsfordiana
54a. Stipe hairs 0.1-0.3 (- 0.6) mm G. sumatrana
Stipe hairs 0.4 - 0.8 (- 1.0) mm 55
55a. Lamina hairs on margin and midvein below G. mesocarpa
Lamina hairs only on margin G. padangensis
56a. Hairs only on midveins below and amongst sori, not or very occasionally on lamina undersurface 57
Hairs widespread on lamina undersurface 58
57a. Stipe less than 2cm; lamina more than 5 mm wide G. reinwardtii
Stipe more than 2cm; lamina less than 5 mm wide G. salticola
58a. All stipe hairs 0.1-0.2 mm G. torricelliana
All or most stipe hairs more than 1.0mm 59
59a. Stipe hairs whitish to pale yellow 60
Stipe hairs pale to medium or dark red-brown 61
60a. Lamina 2.7 - 3.5 x 0.4-0.5cm; spores (37-)38-43 (-44)mm; at c.2840m altitude G. murrayanum
Lamina (1.8-) 4.1-8.9 (-11.5) x (0.4-) 0.5-0.7 (-0.8)cm; spores (25-) 29-35 (-42)mm; from 3400-3900 m altitude G. trichopoda
61a. Hairs of margin and midvein below c.2.5-3.5mm, solitary to 5-nate, hairs of undersurface of lamina solitary, 0.5-2.0 (-4.0)mm G. crinifera
Hairs of margin and midvein below not markedly different from those of lamina undersurface 62
62a. All lamina hairs 1 mm or less G. hispida
At least some lamina hairs more than 1mm 63
63a. Lateral veins slightly prominent on either or both surfaces of lamina when dried G. knutsfordiana
Lateral veins not prominent on surfaces of lamina when dried 64
64a. All stipe and lamina hairs less than 2.0 mm 65
Some, if not most, stipe and lamina hairs more than 2.0mm 67
65a. Lamina more than 14cm G. subreticulata
Lamina less than 13cm 66
66a. Stipe more than 3cm G. trichopoda
Stipe less than 2cm G. collina
67a. Stipe and lamina hairs frequent to moderately dense G. nigropaleata
Stipe and lamina hairs sparse to moderately frequent 68
68a. Lamina hairs medium red-brown G. intromissa
Lamina hairs dark red-brown 69
69a. Lamina more than 25cm G. ornatissima
Lamina less than 15cm G. tomaculosa
70a. Upper branch of lateral vein shorter than lower branch 71
Upper branch of lateral vein about as long as lower branch 83
71a. All or most lamina hairs more than 1mm 72
All lamina hairs less than 0.8mm, or lamina glabrous 76
72a. Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light 73
Lateral veins visible in transmitted light 74
73a. Hairs amongst the sori longer than elsewhere on the lamina G. rupestris
Hairs amongst the sori about as long as those elsewhere on the lamina G. reinwardtii
74a. Lamina more than 25cm G. orantissima
Lamina less than 20cm 75
75a. Lamina hairs occasional to sparse; lamina (2-) 3-5 (-6) mm wide G. hirtiformis
Lamina hairs scattered to frequent; lamina (3-) 4-8 (-9) mm wide G. reinwardtii
76a. Lateral veins visible in transmitted light 77
Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light 79
77a. Lamina hairs pale to dark red-brown, moderately frequent to sparse on upper surface of lamina G. curtipila
Lamina hairs whitish to very pale brown, or if pale to dark red-brown, absent from upper surface of lamina 78
78a. Lamina less than 10cm G. adspersa
Lamina at least 12cm G. viridula
79a. Cells of rhizome scales with several complete and incomplete cross-walls G. dolichosora
Cells of rhizome scales without cross-walls 80
80a. Stipe hairs at least 1mm G. ceratocarpa
Stipe hairs c. 0.1-0.2 mm or absent 81
81a. Stipe glabrous or with occasional hairs; lamina hairs occasional on midvein below G. viridula
Stipe hairs scattered to moderately frequent; lamina hairs at least on margin and midvein below 82
82a. Lamina coriaceous, hairs on midvein below all simple eglandular, solitary to 3-nate G. curtipila
Lamina membranous, hairs on midvein velow both simple and eglandular and 1- 2-forked with all branches eglandular G. glossophylla
83a. Stipe glabrous (if stipe absent, then base of midvein on lamina undersurface glabrous) 84
Stipe with hairs (is stipe absent, then base of midvein on lamina undersurface with hairs) 94
84a. Lamina glabrous 85
Lamina with hairs 89
85a. Lateral veins visible in transmitted light 86
Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light 87
86a. Lamina less than 4cm G. reducta
Lamina more than 7cm G. clavipila
87a. Lamina less than 8cm G. clemensiae
Lamina more than 9 cm 88
88a. Rhizome scales ovate to broadly ovate, obtuse, less than 3mm G. fasciata
Rhizome scales lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, subacute to acute, more than 3mm G. subfasciata
89a. All or most lamina hairs more than 0.5mm G. clemensiae
All or most lamina hairs less than 0.5mm 90
90a. Lamina at least 2 mm wide 91
Lamina 1-2 mm wide 92
91a. Lamina (2-) 3-4 (-5) mm wide G. graminifolia
Lamina (3-) 4-11 (-17) mm wide G. subfasciata
92a. Lamina hairs 0.1-0.2 mm on margin only G. tenuis
Lamina hairs 0.2 mm long or longer, at least on both margin and midvein below 93
93a. Lamina at least 3cm G. papuensis
Lamina less than 2cm G. merrillii
94a. Lamina glabrous 95
Lamina with hairs 97
95a. Stipe hairs to 0.3mm G. frigida
Stipe hairs at least 0.5mm 96
96a. Lamina more than 7cm G. ceratocarpa
Lamina up to 7cm G. clemensiae
97a. Lamina hairs only on margin, or on margin and midvein below 98
Lamina hairs elsewhere on lamina, not restricted to margin and midvein below 104
98a. All or most of lamina hairs more than 0.7mm G. oblanceolata
All lamina hairs 0.7 mm or less 99
99a. Cells of rhizome scales with several complete and incomplete cross-walls G. dolichosora
Cells of rhizome scales without cross-walls 100
100a. Stipe hairs at least 1.0mm G. ceratocarpa
Stipe hairs 0.8 mm or less 101
101a. Stipe hairs more than 0.5mm G. mesocarpa
Stipe hairs less than 0.5mm 102
102a. Hairs of lamina margin blackish, ascending G. graminifolia
Hairs of lamina margin translucent with red-brown cross-walls, +/- patent 103
103a. Lamina (2-) 3-5 (-7) mm wide; in upper montane to subalpine vegtation types G. frigida
Lamina 1-2 mm wide; in midmontane forest G. tenuis
104a. All stipe hairs less than 0.4mm G. frigida
All or most stipe hairs 0.5 mm or longer 105
105a. Lateral veins visible in transmitted light 106
Lateral veins invisible in transmitted light 116
106a. All lamina hairs 0.1 mm or less 107
All or at least some lamina hairs more than 0.1mm 109
107a. Stipe hairs 1.0 mm or longer G. ahenobarba
Stipe hairs 0.5-1.0mm 108
108a. Hairs on all parts of lamina G. coredosora
Hairs only on lower surface of lamina and midvein below G. silvicola
109a. Rhizome scales absent (dissect out stipe bases!) G. parva
Rhizome scales present 110
110a. Lamina hairs frequent 111
Lamina hairs occasional to moderately frequent 112
111a. Rhizome scales dark brown G. debilifolia
Rhizome scales medium red-brown G. trogophylla
112a. Lamina (2-) 3-5 mm wide 113
Lamina (4-) 5 to at least 7 mm wide 114
113a. Lamina obtuse at apex; both lamina surfaces usually glabrous G. oblanceolata
Lamina acute to acuminate at apex; hairs occasional on both surfaces of lamina G. collina
114a. Lamina hairs dark red-brown G. tomaculosa
Lamina hairs medium red-brown 115
115a. Rhizome +/- erect to short-creeping, producing stipes up to 2 mm apart; rhizome scales (0.7-) 1.0-2.0 (-2.2) mm G. intromissa
Rhizome short- to long-creeping, producing stipes up to 13 mm apart; rhizome scales (1.8-) 2.0-3.4 (-3.5)mm G. trichopoda
116a. All or most stipe hairs less than 1.0mm 117
All or most stipe hairs more than 1.0mm 118
117a. Stipe (1-) 3-18 (-31)mm G. clemensiae
Stipe 1-2 mm or absent G. rupestris
118a. Lamina hairs mostly amongst sori, occasional on margina and scattered on midvein below, not elsewhere on lamina surface G. salticola
Hairs on all parts of lamina 119
119a. Rhizomes scales dark brown to dark red-brown 120
Rhizome scales pale to medium red-brown 123
120a. Lamina (2-) 3-5 mm wide G. debilifolia
Lamina (4-) 5 to at least 8 mm wide 121
121a. Stipe hairs moderately dense and laminar hairs frequent G. nigropaleata
Stipe and lamina hairs sparse to moderately frequent 122
122a. Lamina 3.2-19.1 (-40+)cm; lamina hairs medium red-brown G. intromissa
Lamina (1.6-) 1.9-6.1 (-12.1)cm; hairs dark red-brown G. tomaculosa
123a. Stipe and lamina hairs frequent G. trogophylla
Stipe and lamina hairs scattered to moderately frequent 124
124a. Lamina (1-) 2-3 (-4) mm wide G clemensiae
Lamina (4-) 5 mm or more wide 125
125a. Lamina hairs dark red-brown 126
Lamina hairs medium red-brown 127
126a. Lateral veins not prominent on the lower surface of lamina when dried; lamina hairs (0.5-) 1.5-3.7 (-4.0)mm G. tomaculosa
Lateral veins slightly prominent on the lower surface of lamina when dried; lamina hairs 1.0-2.5mm G. reptans
127a. Rhizome +/- erect to short-creeping, producing stipes up to 2 mm apart; rhizome scales (0.7-) 1.0-2.0 (-2.2)mm G intromissa
Rhizome short- to long-creeping, producing stipes up to 13 mm apart; rhizome scales (1.8-) 2.0-3.4 (-3.5) mm G. trichopoda