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acuminate: tapering to an acute point at the apex

acute: ending in a sharp point (apex of a leaf) [image]; with an angle less than 45 degrees to the midrib (leaf side veins) [image]   

adnate: fused to another organ; when the anthers are rigidly held (not pivotally) at the summit of the filament [image]   

adult: the final growth phase of the leaves

alternate: when the leaves are "scattered" along the stem and not opposite [image]   

amplexicaul: stem-clasping; when the sides of the base of the sessile leaf continue to the opposite side of the stem and overlap with the base of an opposite leaf if present [image]   

annular: ring-like; when the disc of the fruit is prominent, flat or raised and free from the valves [image]   

anther(s): the pollen-bearing organ at the apex of the stamen [image]   

anthesis: the process of flowering; in eucalypts this means the shedding of the operculum, spreading of the stamens and opening of the anthers to release pollen

apically: at the apex of (tip)

apiculate: ending abruptly in a short flexible point

areole(s): any small green area of a leaf blade surrounded by veinlets, visible when a leaf is held up to sunlight and inspected with a handlens; may contain a pale dot which is an oil gland

ascending: when the disc of the fruit is raised between the staminophore and the valves [image]   

auriculate: of the leaves, bearing a lobe or lobes at the base [image]   

axil(s): the upper angle between the leaf and the stem

axillary: referring to the location of a plant organ in an axil, for example, the axillary inflorescence [image]   

axis: stem, or the central pillar of tissue in the ovary that bears the placentae


bark: the tissures, collectively outermost to the cambium of a woody plant

barrel-shaped: longer than wide with convex sides (usually referring to fruit shape) [image]   

basifixed: of an anther when the summit of the filament is attached to the base of the connective of the anther

beaked: when the operculum is markedly or slightly contracted to form a beak [image]   

box-bark: dead bark that is persistent, short-fibred, firm, often breaking into a tessellated pattern, often also partly deciduous and bleached [image]   

branchlets: the current and previous years stem growth, usually that part of the plant bearing the leaves

bristle-glands: setae or multi-cellular hairs found on the leaves of species in Angophora and Corymbia. The structure is fairly complex with cap cells at the top and an oil-filled cavity within. They are actually emergent oil glands.

bud(s): a group of cells (or a single cell) with a potential for active division for the initiation of vegetative or reproductive growth (in eucalypts, usually refers to the developing flower)


calycine: of a calyx

calyx: the sepals of a flower

campanulate: bell-shaped; of the fruit, but seen upside-down [image]   

chamber(s): a division of the ovary containing the ovules [image]   

chronogram: a phylogeny with branch lengths proportional to time

clade: a group of taxa defined by at least one shared derived character (i.e., synapomorphy) inherited from a common ancestor; e.g., a monophyletic higher taxon; all descendants from a branch on a cladogram.

cladogram: a branching diagram depicting hypothesised hierarchical relationships among taxa and representing the most parsimonious distribution of derived characters within a set of taxa. Branching diagrams from other methods of analysis with arbitrary branch lengths are often also referred to as cladograms. Cladogram is often used interchangably with phylogeny, although cladogram is derived from a specific method of analysis and the accompanying school of thought (cladistics), whereas phylogeny usually pertains to the actual relationships being inferred.

clavate: club-shaped; of the buds, distinctly pedicellate and widening towards the top [image]   

compacted: when the dead bark is persistent and compact with narrow fissures, usually kino impregnated

compound: when the inflorescence is branched [image]   

concave: curved or bulging inwards, in eucalypts usually referring to the disc of the fruit where the outer wall is curved inwards [image]   

concolorous: when the leaves are the same colour on both sides

condensed inflorescence: a type of compound axillary inflorescence found in many ghost gum species where branches or internodes within the inflorescence are much shortened and difficult to see. The peduncles of the umbels may also be shortened further obscuring the arrangement. Individual buds may have short, long or very long pedicels, depending on the species [image].  Compare with expanded inflorescence.

confluent: blending together, of an anther when the slits formed in dehiscence join in a single crescent-shaped opening [image] [image], of a leaf when the intramarginal vein blends into the edge of the leaf blade

conical: a three dimensional shape, triangular in median longitudinal section and circular in cross-section [image]   

connate: when the bases of opposite leaves are fused around the stem [image]   

consensus tree: a branching diagram produced using a consensus method, i.e. a method for combining the grouping information held in a set of cladograms for the same taxa into a single topology.

convex: curved or bulging outwards, in eucalypts usually referring to the disc of the fruit where the outer wall is curved outwards [image]   

coppice: young stems shooting from a stump or the juvenile growth sprouting from mature trunks or branches [image]   

cordate: heart-shaped, refers particularly to the indented base of the leaf [image]   

corolla: the petals of a flower, in eucalypts referring to the inner perianth whorl

cotyledon(s): one of the first pair of leaves in an embryo, seen following germination (seed leaf) [image]    

crenulate: with a scalloped edge [image]   

crown: the leafy head of a tree

cuboid: resembling a cube, usually referring to seed shape [image]   

cuneate: wedge-shaped

cup-shaped: shaped like a cup. A fruit that is slightly longer than wide, with the sides not quite parallel, the base tapering abruptly or gradually to the pedicel, and the rim neither curved inwards nor flared outwards [image]   

cupular: cup-shaped


deciduous: of the leaves or bark, shed yearly or at the end of a recurring growth period

decorticate: shedding of the bark, shed yearly or at the end of a recurring growth period

decorticated: shed bark

decurrent: the leaves are sessile on the stem and the leaf bases extend as short narrow wings down the side of the stem [image]. In Eucalyptus only seen in the juvenile leaves of some species related to E. flocktoniae.

decussate: of leaves, where pairs of opposite leaves are arranged successively at right-angles to each other up the stem

dehiscence: of the eucalypt flower bud, when the operculum sheds; of the anther, when the lobes open and shed the pollen; of the fruit, when the capsule splits and sheds the seed

deltoid: triangular or D-shaped [image]   

denticulate: finely toothed along the margin [image]   

descending: when the disc lines the upper tubular part of the hypanthium, or slopes downwards towards the valves

diamond-shaped: rhomboidal, or ovoid and angular, usually referring to bud shape [image]   

disc: the tissue in the bud or fruit between the staminophore and the top of the ovary

discolorous: when the upper and lower leaf surfaces differ in colour [image]   

dorsal: of a surface remote from its axis, as an underside of a leaf

dorsifixed: of an anther when the summit of the filament is attached to the connective of the anther on the back-side, i.e. the side away from the centre of the flower when the stamen is erect [image]   

drip-tip: referring to leaf tip, which is prominently acuminate, often tapering to a fine point


egg-in-eggcup: for eucalypts, usually refers to the shape of the buds, where the operculum is usually much narrower than the hypanthium at the join [image]   

ellipsoidal: a three dimensional elliptic shape

elliptic: usually referring to a leaf shape where the leaf tapers to a point equally at both ends and is broadest about the middle [image]   

elliptical: shaped like an ellipse

emarginate: of the leaves, notched at the end [image]   

embryo: the young plant contained within the seed

endemic: when the natural distribution of a species is restricted to a certain defined area

entire: when the edges of the leaves are smooth, i.e. unrelieved by crenulations, teeth, indentations, etc. [image]   

epicormic buds: dormant vegetative buds embedded beneath the bark that have a regenerative function after crown destruction, for example by fire

expanded inflorescence: type of compound axillary inflorescence found in several ghost gum species where branches or internodes within the inflorescence are long and clearly visible, with insertion of successive peducles of bud clusters clearly visible [image].  Compare with condensed inflorescence.


falcate: curved like the blade of a sickle

ferrugineous: of the colour of rusted iron

fertilisation: when the male nucleus of the pollen unites with the female nucleus of the ovule

fibrous: when the bark is non-decorticating and is held in short or long fibres, usually dense, but often held loosely on old branches or towards base of trunk

filament(s): the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther at the tip [image]   

fissured: grooved longitudinally (usually referring to rough bark)

flower(s): the reproductive structure of the plant, for eucalypts referring to the mature bud once it has shed the operculum to expose the stamens, the style and stigma.

fruit(s): the final reproductive organ in a plant; in a eucalypt a composite structure of the seed-bearing capsule held within a woody hypanthium, opening at the top where the seed are shed after dehiscence

furrow(s): a groove or narrow trench, in eucalypts usually referring the longitudinal grooves of the rough bark or the grooves sometimes seen on the smooth surface of seed

furrowed: grooved, in eucalypts usually referring to the longitudinal grooves of the rough bark

fusiform: spindle-shaped, cigar-shaped, usually referring to bud shape [image]   


geniculate: bent sharply (strongly elbowed)

genus: a unit of classification in living organisms below the level of Family, comprising one or many related species

glabrous: smooth, without hairs

gland(s): in eucalypts, small or minute oil containing structures seen near the surface of the young stems, leaves [image], buds and fruits; also near, or at, the top of the connective of the anther; or in the pith of the branchlets [image]  

glandular: with glands

glaucous: covered with a white wax on the surface [image1] [image2]   

globoid: of the anthers, somewhat globular in shape

globose: of the fruit, somewhat globular in shape [image]   

globular: almost spherical (usually referring to the bud or fruit shape) [image]   

green-leaved ash: The term and "green-leaved ash" refers to a species belonging to a subgroup within Eucalyptus subgenus Eucalyptus. This subgroup, section Eucalyptus, has juvenile leaves  which are green juvenile leaves and never glauc


habit: the general appearance or characteristic growth-form of a plant

habitat: the external environment in which a plant lives

hilum: the scar on the seed indicating its point of attachment to the placenta [image]   

holo: holotype (the specimen chosen by the author and cited in the original description as that by which the species must be interpreted)

horn-shaped: in eucalypts, usually referring to the operculum shape, where the operculum is long and narrow (much longer than wide) [image]   

hybrid(s): the progeny resulting from the crossing of two parents with different genetic systems, i.e. usually of different species

hypanthium: an enlarged receptacle; in eucalypts specifically the broadened, invaginated structure at the top of the pedicel partly or wholly enclosing the ovary, i.e. the bottom part of the bud or flower [image]   


inflexed: bent sharply inwards (in eucalypts usually referring to the regular inflexion of the anther filaments) [image] 

inflexion: of the stamens in the bud, referring to the amount of bending of the anther filament

inflorescence(s): the arrangement of flowers on an axis, may be simple or compound

insect scar: the horizontal, usually black scars on the bark of some eucalypts caused by burrowing insect larvae [image]   

intermediate: the growth phase of the leaves between the juvenile and the adult

internode(s): the part of the stem between the points of leaf attachments

intersectional: when the leaf oil glands occur at the intersections of the veinlets or touches them [image]   

intramarginal vein: the prominent vein of a leaf near the margin and running more or less parallel with it [image]   

ironbark: dead bark that is persistent, usually hard, thick, widely and deeply furrowed, and impregnated with kino [image]   

irregular: not rounded in outline; usually referring to leaf oil glands which may be either island oil glands (not connected to veinlets) or intersectional oil glands (connected to veinlets)

island: when the leaf oil glands occur in the centre of the smallest unreticulated areas (areole) of the leaf, as opposed to intersectional oil glands that occur at the intersections of the veinlets [image]   

iso: isotype (a duplicate specimen of the holotype, being a specimen collected from the same plant as the holotype, at the same time and bearing the same collection number)

isolecto: isolectotype (a duplicate of the lectotype)


juvenile: the growth phase of the leaves between the seedling and the intermediate


keel: a ridge, like the keel of a boat

kino: a dark gum exudate that often impregnates the dead bark


lacunose: with small hollows or cavities, in eucalypts referring only to the dorsal surface of some eucalypt seeds [image]   

lamina: leaf blade

lanceolate: lance-shaped, with the widest part below the middle and tapering to a point at the apex [image]   

lecto: lectotype (a specimen or illustration, selected from the specimens cited in the original description, to serve in place of the holotype when the holotype is known to be missing or destroyed)

lenticels: pores found on the margins of the leaves of some species

lignotuber(s): a woody tuber developed in the axils of the cotyledons or the first few leaf pairs, becoming massive in many mature trees or mallees, possessing embedded vegetative buds for regeneration following crown destruction, for example by fire [image]   

linear: breadth very narrow in relation to length, usually with parallel sides [image]   

loc. cit.: loco citato (in the same work and page as just cited)

locule(s): chamber of the ovary seen by cross-section of the bud or inside a dehisced fruit [image]   


mallee(s): the growth form of many eucalypts, i.e. a multi-stemmed shrub with a lignotuber; (sometimes used loosely for a low straggly short-trunked tree) [image]   

mallet(s): a specialised tree growth form found only in Western Australia, having slender erect stems and steeply angled branches but lacking the regenerative structures found in many other eucalypts, viz. lignotubers and epicormic buds [image]   

marlock(s): a single-stemmed shrub or small tree which has spreading branches that are densely leafy often almost to the ground, and lacks a lignotuber [image]   

midrib: the primary vein of a leaf [image]   

minnirichi: for eucalypts, a bark type only found in Western Australia, where the outer layer of weathered bark splits longitudinally and curls outwards at the edges but remains attached to the stem at the middle, usually exposing shiny green to coppery unweathered bark [image]   

monophyletic group: a group of taxa that includes the most recent common ancestor plus all and only all of its descendants. It usually refers to a clade, i.e., an organism and all of its descendants.

mop-like: shaggy (usually referring to the long papillae on the stigma) [image]   

mop-top(s): refers to the stigma shape, the stigma looks slightly shaggy and is formed by long papillae [image]   

morphology: shape or form, or the study of them

mucronate: with a mucro, a short, hard or flexible point, usually referring to the leaf apex


n.v.: non vidi (not seen)

node(s): the point of attachment of leaves on a stem

nom. illeg.: nomen illegitimum (illegitimate name)

nom. inval.: nomen invalidum (name not validly published)

nom. nud.: nomen nudum (a name published without a diagnosis or a description of the entity to which it applies)

nom. superfl.: nomen superfluum (superfluous name)


obconical: conical but inverted with the narrow end to the point of attachment [image]   

obcordate: the opposite of cordate, in eucalypts usually referring to a heart-shaped leaf where the leaf stalk is attached at the narrow end of the leaf [image]   

oblanceolate: the reverse of lanceolate, with the widest part between the middle of the leaf and the apex [image]   

oblique: of the leaves, when the two sides of the leaf base meet at different points on the midrib or petiole; of the anther, when the slits of dehiscence slope inwards towards the top of the groove separating the sacs [image]   

oblong: of the leaves, when the sides of the leaves are parallel and narrow abruptly at both ends [image] 
of the buds, when the buds are cylindrical with parrallel sides

obovate: when the broadest part of a leaf is beyond the middle, the opposite of ovate [image]  

obovoid: egg-shaped (3 dimensional structures) with the broadest part towards the apex, the opposite of ovoid

ontogenetically: the sequence of developmental stages which the young plant passes through during its lifetime, in eucalypts referring to the development of the plant through the cotyledon to the seedling to the juvenile to the sapling to the adult stages

op. cit.: opere citato (in the work cited above)

opercula/operculum: in eucalypts, the cap of a flower bud which is formed by the fusion of the sepals or the petals, and dehisces at maturity exposing the reproductive organs [image]   

operculum scar: ring scar on bud left by shedding of the outer operculum [image]   

orbicular: more or less round [image]   

orth. var.: orthographic variant

ortho. error: orthographic error

ovary/ovaries: the base of the female reproductive part of a flower comprising a central axis, the placentae, the ovules and the ovule -containing chambers

ovary roof: that part of the flower visible between the style base and the inner edge of the nectary tissue at the base of the stamens. The ovary roof develops into the valves of the fruit.

ovate: when the leaves are egg-shaped with the broadest part towards the petiole [image]   

ovoid: egg-shaped (3 dimensional structures), with the broadest part at the base, usually referring to bud shape [image]   

ovule(s): the organ of a seed-plant borne on the placenta that develops into a seed after fertilisation [image1] [image2]   


p.p.: pro parte (in part)

panicle(s): a branched inflorescence

papillae: a small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ

papillose: covered with short blunt protruberances

paraphyletic group: a group that does not include all descendants from the common ancestor of its members; a group that remains when one or more components of a monophyletic group are excluded.

parsimony: the general scientific principle when choosing between competing hypotheses - chose the hypothesis that explains the data most simply and efficiently.

pedicel(s): the stalk of a flower, bud [image] or fruit [image]   

pedicellate: with stalks

peduncle(s): the common stalk of a cluster of flowers, buds [image] or fruit [image]   

peltate: when the petiole of the leaves is attached on the underside of the leaf blade within the margin [image]   

pendulous: hanging downwards, usually referring to umbel or fruiting peduncles (which in some species curve downwards) or to drooping branches [image]   

penniveined: feather-like; when the side veins of the leaf are very numerous, parallel, close together and at a relatively wide angle to the midrib

peppermint: of the bark, when the dead bark is persistent, relatively short-fibred, firm, interlaced and finely fissured longitudinally; of the leaf oils, detected when a strong peppermint smell is obtained by crushing the leaves

pers. comm.: by personal communication

persistent: when the dead bark is not shed yearly and accumulates in the following forms - stringy, peppermint, compact, box, ironbark

petaline: of a petal

petiolate: with a stalk

petiole(s): leaf stalk [image]   

phyllotaxis: leaf arrangement on the stem, e.g. decussate, spiral etc.

phylogenetic: based upon natural evolutionary relationships; pertaining to the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms.

phylogeny: 1) the genealogical (evolutionary) relationships among species and higher level taxa; 2) a branching diagram that summarises these relationships as an hypothesis. The arrangement of branches is the optimal solution under a given method of analysis; the branch lengths may be proportional to time (chronogram), amount of change in the data examined (phylogram), or arbitrary (cladogram).

pin-head: refers to stigma shape, the stigma widens suddenly at the top of the style, like the head of a pin [image]   

pith: the inner core of tissue of a plant stem

placenta: in flowering plants, the tissue in the ovary chamber bearing the ovules

placentae: regions, within an ovary, to which ovules are attached

powdery: when the bark surface has a white powder that can be rubbed off easily with fingers [image]   

primordia: cells or tissues in the earliest stages of differentiation

pro syn.: as a synonym

pubescent: covered with short, erect hairs [image1] [image2] [image3]   

pyramidal: for eucalypts usually referring to operculum shape [image] or seed shape [image] where the operculum or seed has four triangular sides that meet at a common apex to form a point (often distorted obliquely in seeds)

pyriform: pear-shaped [image]   


ramiflorous: for eucalypts, flowering from the naked branches [image]   

reniform: kidney-shaped; of the anthers and cotyledons [image]   

reticulate: forming a network (usually referring to the tertiary vein pattern of a leaf) [image]   

reticulation: network of veins in the leaf [image]   

rhachis: the axis or main stem

ribbony: when long strips of partly shed bark remain in the crown or drape down the trunk [image]   

rim: outer edge, usually circular and often raised, in eucalypts usually referring to the upper edge of the fruit [image]   

rudimentary: poorly developed and usually not functional

rugose: wrinkled


saucer-shaped: flattened like a saucer, usually referring to seed shape [image]   

scabrid: of a surface when roughed by short protuberances

scar(s): ring scar on the side of a flower bud left by the loss of the outer operculum [image]   

scribbles: the irregular markings on the living bark of some species caused by burrowing insect larvae

scurfy: scaly, covered with small flakes [image]   

sens. lat.: sensus lato (Latin) – in a broad sense

section: a natural subgeneric grouping between subgenus and series level in the classification of plants

seed: a mature ovule within which develops an embryo, formed in the sexual reproductive cycle, consisting of a protective coat enclosing the embryo and food reserves [image]   

seedling(s): the next growth phase of the leaves after the cotyledons but before the juvenile leaves

seeds: mature ovules within which develops embryos, formed in the sexual reproductive cycle, consisting of protective coats enclosing the embryos and food reserves

sepal(s): the outer perianth whorl of a flower which in eucalypts may become fused into a single structure, the outer operculum

series: a natural subgeneric grouping between section and species level in the classification of plants

sessile: of a leaf, bud [image] or fruit [image], lacking a stalk

setae: bristle shaped structures (usually referring to bristle-glands)

setose: of a surface when covered by bristle-glands

shrub(s): a mallee that is low and very irregularly branched, without a principal erect main stem [image]   

side-veins: the secondary veins of a leaf [image]   

simple: unbranched (usually referring to unbranched inflorescences or unbranched hairs)

species: the basic unit of classification which usually refers to one or several groups of plants or other living organisms that interbreed and maintain their distinctive identity through successive generations

s.s.: sensus stricto (Latin) – in a narrow sense

stamen(s): the male reproductive part of a flower comprising, in eucalypts, a long filament surmounted by a pollen-bearing anther [image]   

staminal: relative to the stamens

staminode(s): a sterile stamen, one without an anther or with a reduced non-functional anther [image]   

staminophore: the band of tissue in a flower bud that subtends the stamens. In most species it is not conspicuous and, after flowering, it is either shed in fragments when the stamens fall or remains inconspicuous on the developing fruit. In some species it remains intact, persisting as an obvious dry annulus on the top of the fruit for some time after the stamens have fallen, but ultimately is deciduous. In E. polyanthemos subsp. longior the staminophore, complete with stamens, sheds as a "fairy ring" immediately after flowering [image].   

stellate: of hairs with radiating papillae; or a star-shaped bud cluster

stem-clasping: usually referring to leaves where the bases are sessile and lobed on each side of the midrib, with each lobe extending past the stem to more or less clasp it [image]   

stigma(s): receptive pollen-collecting structure at the tip of the style [image]   

stocking: the persistent bark on the lower trunk of an otherwise smooth-barked tree

striate: marked with more or less parallel longitudinal ridges

stringybark: dead bark that is persistent, long-fibred, thick, furrowed, and often interlaced beneath the surface

style: the filament surmounting the ovary through which the pollen tube travels from the stigma to the ovules to effect fertilisation [image]   

subcrenulate: with a weakly scalloped edge

subgenus: a natural group between genus and section used in the classification of plants

sub-opposite: nearly opposite (usually referring to the position of leaves on the stem)

subspecies: a form of a species having a distinctive identity and occupying a particular habitat or region

syn: syntype (specimen or specimens cited by the author in the original description when no holotype was designated)

synapomorphy: a shared derived character state that unites two or more taxa into a monophyletic group. It diagnoses a clade or monophyletic group.

syncarpy: where all buds in the cluster (or fruit in a cluster) are fused together by the bases


T: (type) the element of a taxon (for a species or subspecies, usually a botanical specimen) to which the name for that group is permanently attached, either as a correct name or as a synonym

terminal: of the inflorescence, occurring at the end of a branchlet and not axillary (in the axils of a leaf) [image]
of the winged seed, occurring at one end of the seed
of the hilum, occurring at one end of a linear, elongated, cuboid or pyramidal seed

tessellated: occurring in small thick flakes or small squares [image]   

tree: an erect single stemmed woody plant, usually at least 5 metres high [image]   

truncate: cut off, as in a truncate-globose fruit [image], which is globular but cut off at the top or truncate leaf base [image], where the leaf has a straight bottom edge

tubular: in the form of tube or tubicle

turban-shaped: of the operculum, like a sheik's turban, a word to describe those opercula with rounded bases wider than the hypanthium [image]   


umbel(s): inflorescence with sessile or pedicellate flowers arising from the top of a peduncle; a simple inflorescence is a single umbel; a compound inflorescence has several to many umbels as subunits of the whole

umbo: a knob or boss, more coarse than an apiculum.

umbonate: with a rounded or conical protuberance, bump or boss (an umbo), often referring to the top of the operculum [image]. It is more coarse than an apiculum.  

uncinate: with a delicate hook at the tip (of a leaf)

undulate: of a leaf surface, wavy, not all of the lamina is in the same plane [image]   

urceolate: urn-shaped [image]   


valve(s): a sector of the roof of the capsule of a eucalypt fruit which is formed by dehiscence and is usually raised to allow the passage of seed and chaff [image]   

variety: one of two or more forms of a species with a minor morphological distinction

venation: the pattern of veins of the leaves

ventral: of a lateral organ, facing towards the subtending axis (usually referring to the hilum position on seeds)

versatile: of the anthers, attached to a fine tip of the filament and able to pivot

vicariance event: a change in the environment isolating groups of individuals of the same species from each other. The result is speciation and separation of subsequent lineages that arise from these species. Natural barriers (the vicariant events) range from more or less permanent and/or effective (new oceans, high mountain ranges) to fluctuating and/or less isolating (rivers, island connectedness varying with sea level changes).


winged: the longitudinal "wings" of a prominently 4-sided stem [image], or on some gumnuts; the thin, membranous, (usually transparent) appendage on the edge of some seed [image]